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July 5, 2021

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July 5, 2021 The Star Page 5 as constituents’ expectations of their representatives. The decision to establish a two- year term for members of the House reflected the Cenvention’s belief that Representatives would be close to the people and, in the spirit of democracy- in—action, likely to give voice to con— stituents’ immediate needs and demands, and serve as a vent for their emotions, including frustrations and anger. Their perspective would focus more on short-term, rather than long- terrn interests of the nation. A two- year term, it could be said, would keep members of the House on a short leash and ensure frequent consultation with the citizenry. Two years, Madi— son asserted, would be sufficient to acquire knowledge of “the principal objects of federal legislation.” These considerations shaped the framers’ decision to balance the more intimate and direct nature of repre- sentation in the House with a more detached conception of representa- tion in the Senate, which would be influenced by a six-year year term in office. While House members would emphasize short-term interests, Sen- ators would, it was expected, focus on the long-terms interests of the United States. Like their counterparts in the House, Senators would be ex- pected to acquire knowledge neces- sary to write laws and policies to govern our nation, but these mem- bers of the Upper Chamber would exercise additional powers that re- Elections (Continued from Page 4) flected what Madison, in Federalist No. 62, called “senatorial trust.” The constitutional allocation of powers to the Senate, not exercised by the House, such as shared author- ity with the president over treaties and appointments, reflects the framers’ view that the Senate should be focused, generally, on the long- term commitments of the nation. This is not true of every power, of course, since the House shares with the Senate the war. power — the au- thority to take the nation to war —— which certainly can entail the most solemn implications for the future of the United States. However, a six— year term for the Senate was de- signed to encourage stability, continuity and long—range planning in policy matters, including foreign policy and treaty making, and the ad— ministration of government, as glimpsed in the appointment of fed- eral judges and ambassadors, among other officials. A revolving door of Senators coming and going on, say, an annual, biennial or triennial basis, likely would undermine the framers’ hopes for a mature institution, weighing the pros and Cons of policies, treaties and appointments from the perspective of long-term national interests. This historical explanation is not to say that the framers’ hopes have been fulfilled. Adler is president of The Alturas Institute, created to advance Ameri- can Democracy through promotion of the Constitution, civic education, equal protection and gender equality. Send questions about the Consti- tution to Dr. Adler at NDWTPCol- umn@gmail.c0m and he will attempt to answer them in subsequent columns. This column is provided by the North Dakota Newspaper Asso- ciation and Humanities North Dakota. ‘ Blister beetles causing issues in the state Blister beetles, which are toxic to horses, could be a problem in North Dakota this year. “While blister beetles are common in many areas of the U.S., horse owners in North Dakota usually have not been concerned with this toxic insect,” says Carrie Hammer, a professor in North Dakota State University’s Animal Sciences Department. “However, horse owners need to be cautious because horses that consume alfalfa hay contaminated with these beetles have a high risk for serious illness and death.” Several species of blister beetles can be found in the a ‘ U.S., and all produce cantharidin, a toxin that causes in~ if v flarnrnation and blistering of internal body tissues. Although all species produce the toxin, the cantharidin content varies among species. The striped blister beetle is known for consistently having higher toxin concentrations. “A common question from horse owners is: ‘How many beetles can my horse consume before I need to worry?”’ Hammer says. “Due to the variation in toxin Seve e found in the U.S., and all produce cantharidin, a toxin that causes inflammation and blistering of internal body tissues. nary, cardiovascular and nervous system problems also can occur. Horses consuming a toxic dose can die quickly concentration among beetles,‘this is a difficult question" "(Within three“ 18 mum)", to answer. However, most‘studies report ingestion of 25 to 300 beetles is enough to kill an average-size adult horse.” Owners should consult their veterinarian immediately if they suspect their horse has consumed blister beetles. “Clinical signs of blister beetle poisoning usually occur six to eight hours after ingestion,” says Gerald Stokka, NDSU Extension veterinarian. “Affected horses often show signs of colic and depression, although uri— Blister‘ beetles tend to congregate in certain areas of a field. Thus, hay bales from those areas often contain high beetle numbers, whereas bales from other areas of the field may be beetle-free. Hammer and Stokka encourage horse owners to check alfalfa bales carefully prior to feeding the alfalfa to their horses and discard any contaminated bales. “Even the juice from crushed beetles can cause illness; therefore, owners should not simply remove dead beetles in hopes of feeding the hay,” Hammer adds. Trees are more forgiving than other kinds of plants By Joe Zeleznik, Forester NDSU Extension I’m a terrible gardener. How terrible? One year, I could- . n’t even grow a zucchini. It’s true. This year, our peppers and toma- toes — in pots on the deck — are look— ing awful. I finally realized that the problem was a lack of nutrients, not overwatering. After adding some fer- tilizer last week, they do finally look like they’re pulling out of it. That’s one of the reasons I love trees so much. They’re so forgiving. I’ve planted them too early, too late, too shallowly and occasionally too deeply. And yet they usually survive“ and even thrive. Long—lived perenni- als have to be tough like that, adapt- ing to an ever-changing environment, even though they’re stuck in place. Right now, trees are cranking away with photosynthesis, using the chlorophyll in their leaves and en- ergy from the sun to combine carbon dioxide and water and make sugar. . That sugar then moves around the tree to produce wood, bark, new twigs and leaves, roots, flowers and fruit. It’s an amazing process. The amount of sugar that’s produced is huge, and then it moves around a bi- ological system that can be 80, 90 or even 100 feet in the air. And there’s a widespread below—ground system that’s just as big that we rarely see. Trees are so tough that they don’t even need all of their leaves. Let me explain. Trees get partially defoliated every year. Some insects feed on leaf tissue and some fungi will cause leaves to drop prematurely. Even a bad wind storm can result in some leaf loss. However, if that loss is less than about 25%, then the tree doesn’t even feel it. This was brought home to me when I read a scientific article where the authors had punched holes in leaves, as if the leaves were being eaten by insects, and then they meas- ured the effects on photosynthesis. For low levels of leaf loss, less than about 30%, overall photosynthesis wasn’t affected at all. The remaining leaf tissue easily made up for the lost i tissue. Only above that 30% thresh- old did the trees start to be stressed. Amazing! That fits right in with our pruning guidelines: Take out no more than about 25% of the branches or leaves in any one year. The old guidelines used 33% as the cutoff. Yes, the num- bers are slightly different, but they’re still in the ballpark. If a tree has lost less than 25% of its leaf tissue, don’t worry about it..It’ll be OK. Not only are the leaves feeding their trees, they’re also indirectly feeding their ecosystems. Years ago, I was working on a project to collect seeds from ash trees to help us pre- pare for emerald ash borer. One spe- cific black ash tree in Minnesota was absolutely covered with seeds. I col- lected almost 23,000 seeds from that single tree, and it looked like I had- barely touched it. ‘What would happen to all those re— maining seeds? Certainly not all of them would survive to germinate and produce new black ash trees. And that’s when I began to understand that this tree — indeed, all plants — are feed- ing the ecosystem. They’re feeding the bacteria, fungi, worms, insects and other small critters. Those animals be- come food for field mice, voles, birds and other small animals. Those in turn feed the larger animals. But it all starts with the trees and other plants. As I said at the beginning, I’m a terrible gardener. The tomatoes and peppers need some TLC. But trees have to be tough. Basically, I put them in the ground and then walk away. And they usually do just fine. For more information about gar- dening, contact your local NDSU Ex— tension agent. Find the Extension office for your county at https://www.ag.ndsu.edu/exten- sion/directory/counties. 7—7—2l @l :30 PM 'RHUBARB FEST Join us! We are excited to announce that the Donseith Community Nursing Home is having our annual Rhubarb Festival. Bring your best Rhubarb dish to be tested and judged for your Chance to win 0 prize cnd bragging rights! We are excited to see you. Coping with COVID ' exacerbated tinnitus Dear Savvy Senior, I’ve had mild tinnitus — ringing in my ears — for years, but when I got COVID in January it got worse. Are there any treatments you know of or can recommend that can help? Almost 60 Dear Almost, Unfortunately, new research indi- cates that tinnitus, a common hearing problem that affects around 50 mil- lion Americans, may be worsened by COVID-l9 or possibly. even trig- gered by it. Here’s what you should know along with some tips and treat- ments that may help. What is Tinnitus? Tinnitus (pronounced tin-NIGHT- us or TIN-a-tus) is the sensation of hearing a ringing, buzzing, roaring, hissing or whistling sound in one or both ears when no external sound is present. The sounds, which can vary in pitch and loudness, are usually worse when background noise is low, so you may be more aware of it at night when you’re trying to fall asleep in a quiet room. For most people tinnitus is merely annoying, but for many others it can be extremely disturbing. Tinnitus itself is not a disease, but rather a symptom of some other un- derlying health condition. The best way to find out what’s causing your tinnitus is to see an audiologist, or an otolaryngologist — a doctor who spe- cializes in ear, nose and throat dis- eases (commonly called an ENT). The various things that can cause tin- nitus are: * Hearing loss, which is the most common cause. * Middle ear obstructions usually . at... . By Jim Miller caused by a build-up of earwax deep in the ear canal. . * The side effects of many differ- ent prescription and nonprescription medicines like aspirin, ibuprofen, certain blood pressure medicines and diuretics, some antidepressants, can- cer medicines and antibiotics. * Various medical conditions such as high blood pressure, vascular dis- ease, diabetes, allergies, thyroid problems, ear or sinus infections, Meniere’s disease, Lyme disease, fi— bromyalgia, otosclerosis, temporo— mandibular joint (TMJ) disorder, a tumor, an injury to the head or neck, traumatic brain injury, depression, stress and more. Treatments While there’s no cure for tinnitus there are many ways to treat it de- pending on the cause. For example, if your tinnitus is caused by a wax build—up in your ears or a medical condition like high blood preSsure or a thyroid problem, treating the prob- lem may reduce or eliminate the noise. Or, if you think a medication you’re taking may be causing the problem, switching to a different drug, or lowering the dosage may provide some relief. Or if you have hearing loss, getting a hearing aid can help mask your tinnitus by im— proving your ability to hear actual sounds. Another good treatment option for tinnitus that can help suppress or mask the sound so it’s less bother- some are “sound therapies.” These can be as simple as a fan or a white noise machine, listening to music or podcasts, or leaving the television on. ’ There are also apps created by hearing aid companies, like ReSound Relief (ReSound.com) or Relax by Starkey (Starkey.com), which allow you to stream customize sounds di- rectly to your hearing aids, or (if you don’t use hearing aids) through Blue- tooth audio devices like headphones or speakers to help you manage your symptoms. Cognitive behavioral therapy and psychological counseling can also be helpful. Your audiologist or ENT can help you figure out the best treatment options. There are also certain medications that may help. While currently there’s no FDA approved drugs specifically designed to treat tinnitus, some antianxiety drugs and antide- pressants have been effective in re— lieving symptoms. Other things you can do to help quiet the noise is to avoid things that can aggravate the problem like salt, artificial sweeteners, sugar, alcohol, tonic water, tobacco and caffeine. And protect yourself from loud noises by wearing earplugs. For more information on tinnitus treatments, visit the American Tinni- tus Association at ATA.org. Send your senior questions to: Savvy Senior, PO. Box 5443, Nor- man, OK 73070, or visit SavvySe— nior.org. Jim Miller is a contributor to the NBC Today show and author of “The Savvy Senior” book. 3 State will begin process of drawing boundaries for new legislative districts North Dakota redistricting com- mittee sets first meeting The Republican—led committee that will draw the boundaries of North Dakota’s new legislative dis- tricts has scheduled its first meeting later this summer at the state Capitol. The Aug. 26 meeting will be fol- lowed by at least six others statewide to gather input on a new legislative map that will influence the political balance of power for the. next decade. Finley GOP Rep. Bill Devlin, chairman of the l6—member commit- tee, on Tuesday said that public input will be part of the committee’s work sessions. The meetings also will be livestreamed, which had not hap- pened previously. Legislative redistricting happens every 10 years after a federal census. It aims to ensure each lawmaker rep- resents about the same number of people. Devlin said lawmakers are still awaiting final federal census num— bers, which are expected to be re- leased in mid-August. Population is power in the Legis- lature because each legislative dis- trict must represent roughly the same number of people. When North Dakota’s new legislative map is drawn later this year, Fargo and Bis- marck will have more power in the Legislature, while North Dakota’s rural areas will have less. When the Legislature completed its last redistricting plan a decade ago, district populations averaged Combine the internet, TV and phone services you love at the price you want with our money—saving PACs. ’ PICK YOUR PERFECT PACs TODAY. about 14,500 people. The new plan will likely add about 2,000 more peo- ple to that, with preliminary census estimates. North Dakota’s population is esti- mated at a record 779,000, up 106,000 people from a decade ago, said Kevin Iverson, manager of the census office at the state Commerce Department. More than 90% of the growth has occurred in the state’s 13 biggest cities, Iverson said. Of the state’s 357 cities, 223 have lost population in the past decade. North Dakota has 47 legislative districts, and each is represented by two House members and a senator. The Legislature has 47 senators and Temanson 94 House members. Republicans have 80 House seats to Democrats’ 14, and a 40-7 edge in the Senate. The redistricting committee, picked earlier this month by legisla- tive leaders, consists of 14 Republi— cans and only two Democrats. Democrats hold about 14% of leg- islative seats, so proportionately, the redistricting committee is in line with the Legislature’s makeup. The Legislature would finish the redistricting job during a special or reconvened session this fall. The full Legislature has to ap- prove the plan, and the governor must sign off on it. Any new districts would be re- flected in the June 2022 primary. ' SOCIAL Law Firm Paul A. ‘ngM Langdon 0 701.256.5156 I Botiineau 0 701.228.1101 i Rolla ' 701.477.1101 utma.com i This institution is an equal opportunity provider and employer. UNITED HTURTLE MOUNTAIN COMMUNICATIONS